Glossary of logistics terms

Here you will find detailed definitions of the most common logistics terms 📚

Container terminal maritime transport

ADR is a European agreement regulating the international transport of dangerous goods by road.

AEO, or Authorised Economic Operator, is a status granted to companies that enables more efficient customs clearance. It is a certificate that gives a number of powers in the process of customs control within the European Union, leading to a reduction in the number of controls carried out. When controls are required, companies with AEO status are given priority. As a result, customs clearance runs more smoothly and efficiently for these authorised entities.

AMS, or Automated Manifest System, is an automated data reporting system when exporting to the US.

The ATA, or Air Transport Association of America, is the US trade association for air transport.

The ATA Carnet, also known as the ATA Carnet, is an international customs document that simplifies the customs clearance process for goods exported for canvassing, exhibitions and professional equipment. The ATA Carnet allows these goods to move freely across borders, eliminating the need to pay additional duties and taxes for the duration of their temporary stay in another country. It is therefore an important document for facilitating international trade and exhibition activities.

ATT, or Goods attached to air waybill, refers to goods that are attached or attached to an air waybill. This means that the goods are closely attached to and accompany the air waybill, which contains information about the consignment.

An AWB, or Air Waybill, is a document used in air transport to record and track shipments. It is a type of air waybill that contains information about the shipper, consignee, type of goods, quantity, weight and other relevant details of the shipment being transported.

A B/L, or bill of lading, is a document known as a bill of lading, which serves as a sea waybill.

BAF, or Bunker Adjustment Factor, is an additional charge to take into account increases in marine fuel prices.

The BAG, or Bundesamt für Güterverkehr, is the German equivalent of the Polish Road Transport Inspection. BAG inspectors are authorised to inspect both domestic and foreign operators.

CAF, or Currency Adjustment Factor, is an additional valorisation factor resulting from changes in exchange rates.

CAO, or Cargo Aircraft Only, means that a flight is only available for cargo aircraft. Other types of aircraft, such as passenger aircraft, are not allowed to carry cargo on such a flight.

CASS, or Cargo Accounts Settlement System, is a settlement system designed to facilitate settlements between airlines and freight forwarders. It acts as a platform to enable simplified and efficient financial settlements for airline transport services.

CAT, or Cargo Accompanying Transport, refers to the handler of the cargo being transported. This is the person or company responsible for ensuring that the cargo is properly transported and secured during transport.

CBM / cubic metre - is a dimension of 1 x 1 x 1m / usually refers to the volume of a commodity.

A CFS, or Container Freight Station, is a site specifically designed for the unloading and loading of containers from and onto ships. It is the point at which the movement of containerised cargo between ship and shore takes place.

CFR, or Cost and Freight, means that the seller is responsible for covering the costs of transporting the goods to their destination. However, the risk of the goods already passes to the buyer when the goods are loaded onto the vessel.

CIF, or Cost, Insurance and Freight, means that the seller is responsible for covering the costs, insurance and freight associated with transporting the goods to the port of destination. In the event that goods are lost or damaged in transit, it is the seller who is responsible and liable for the associated costs.

The CIM is an international convention regulating the transport of goods by rail.

CIP, or Carriage and Insurance Paid to, means that the costs of carriage and insurance are paid to the specified destination. Under the contract, the seller is responsible for covering these costs until the goods are delivered to the specified destination.

The CISF (China International Shipping Fee) is an additional fee applicable to sea transport from China.

CMR is a convention used for international road transport carried out for commercial purposes. The abbreviation CMR also refers to the international car consignment note, which is a personal and non-transferable document used to record details of the carriage of goods by road.

CPT, or Carriage Paid To, means that the costs of carriage are paid to a specific destination. It is the equivalent of CFR for transport other than by sea and inland waterway. Under the contract, the seller pays the carriage costs to the specified destination.

DAP, or delivered at place, most often the designated place will be a port or rail or air terminal

DDP, or delivered duty paid, means that the seller will be responsible for delivering the goods to their destination and paying all customs duties and taxes

DDU, or delivered duty unpaid, means that the seller will deliver the goods at the door but will not clear them through customs in the destination country and will not pay duty and taxes

DGR - Dangerous Goods Regulations - a set of guidelines on how to transport and document air shipments that are dangerous.

EAN - European Article Number , also known as European Commodity Code, is used to label units of goods, especially retail products.

EBS - Emergency Bunker Surcharge This is an additional charge to reduce the impact of fuel price volatility and is decided by the shipowner carrying out the transport.

EORI - Economic Operators Registration and Identification Number, is otherwise known as an importer number, and is used as an identification to contact the customs office. Every importer or exporter must have an EORI number. To do so, all you need to do is apply and be granted one, the whole thing should not take more than a few days. 

ePOD - electronic proof of delivery

ETA - estimated time of arrival - estimated time of arrival of the cargo at the destination, e.g. port or terminal 

EWB - Express Waybill for intermodal transport

ETD - Estimated / Expected Time of Departure) - in practice this means the expected date of departure of the ship, train or, in the case of air transport, the departure of our goods. This gives us an exact date for the departure of the cargo.

ERS - i.e. additional surcharge, intended to compensate the shipowner for losses resulting from insufficient availability of containers

EUR is a standard European pallet made of wood with a size of 1200 x 800 mm.

EXW - In practice, the EXW or Ex works formula means that the seller places the shipment in front of the warehouse or at another designated location. The rest of the transport is left to us, i.e. collecting the goods from the shipper's warehouse and onward transportation to the destination. In this case, it is necessary to use a logistics company that will carry out such transport for us under EXW conditions. The buyer will be responsible for loading the goods, often the seller has the necessary equipment for loading, but if something goes wrong through his fault, the responsibility still lies with the buyer.

FAK, or Freight All Kind, is a carrier's tariff classification system that includes different types of goods collected and shipped together at a single freight rate. Consolidated shipments are commonly referred to as FAK.

FAF, also known as fuel adjustment factor, is a fuel price adjustment factor.

FAS, or Free alongside ship - Refers to the delivery of goods to the side of the ship at a designated loading port. The exporter has direct access to the ship for loading, especially in the case of bulk cargo or goods not packed in containers.

FCA - or free carier - means that the seller must deliver the goods to a designated point, which will most often be the port of loading or the rail or air terminal from which the goods will leave.

FCL - Full container load, stands for one whole container

The FCR, or Forwarders Certificate of Receipt, is a receipt document whose main purpose is to support trade finance and facilitate the use of letters of credit.

FEU - forty foot equivalent unit - is equivalent to a 40 foot container. 

FIATA (International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations). FIATA is an international organisation of freight forwarders, freight forwarding agents and others involved in the transport and logistics industry.

FEFO, or first expiry first out, is the principle whereby products with the earliest expiry date are dispensed first.

FIFO, or first in first out, is the principle whereby goods held in stock the longest are released first.

FOB is the Incoterms FOB or free on board principle in practice means that the seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the port or other destination we agree. Also, the seller is obliged to pay local costs and carry out export clearance.

Form A is a certificate of origin that certifies the country or region of origin of goods. It is required to benefit from a preferential rate of duty when importing from developing and underdeveloped countries

FRI refers to frozen goods that are subject to veterinary or sanitary/hygienic control.

frozen goods

means full trailer / full truck load transport

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